Search This Blog

Friday, 16 March 2018

Biomedical image processing and application-Model question paper for PhD course work exam

1(a) Digital image processing covers for major areas. What are they? Explain. (08 Marks)
(b) Write a note on image reconstruction algorithm. (08 Marks)
(c) Mention achievements of Lauterbur and Mansfield in the field of biomedical image processing. (04 Marks)
2(a) What is positron emission tomography? What are its advantages? (08 Marks)
(b) Write a note on neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding. (06 Marks)
(c) What is HRRT? Explain using a neat figure. (06 Marks)
3(a) Distinguish between NMR and ESR. (06 Marks)
(b) Write a detailed note on first principles of MRI. (08 Marks)
(c) What is optimal geometric transformation? Explain. (6 Marks)
4(a) What is the role of ultrasound in clinical cardiology? (08 Marks)
(b) What is piezoelectricity? Mention some examples of piezoelectric crystals. (06 Marks)
(c) What is attenuation? How it is helpful in achieving equilibrium in tissue elasticity? (06 Marks)
5(a) Write notes on segmentation and smoothing. (06 Marks)
(b) Write a note on inherent building block concept in morphological processing. (06 Marks)
(c) What are erosion and dilation? How are they computed? (08 Marks)
6(a) What is SPECT? Explain. (06 Marks)
(b) What are textons? Explain. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain how texture features are used in mammography and brain imaging. (08 Marks)
7(a) Differentiate between isophote curvature and flowline curvature. (06 Marks)
(b) Write a note on use of GMMs in brain tissue and lesion segmentation. (08 Marks)
(c) Write a note on deformable simplex meshes. (06 Marks)
8(a) What is cutaneous melanoma? What is its relevance in early diagnosis? (06 Marks)
(b) Explain Heterogeneity of Enhancement Kinetics in DCE-MRI. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain how Rendering of Segmented Data is achieved in Direct Volume Rendering. (4 Marks)
(d) Write a note on Gaps of Medical CBIR Systems. (04 Marks)

Tuesday, 13 March 2018

Research Methodology-Model question paper for PhD course work

1(a) What is the scientific method of research? Discuss the characteristics of scientific method. (04 Marks)
(b) Explain the terms null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain the points to be considered in the process of identifying a research problem. (06 Marks)
(d) Explain the characteristics of a good hypothesis. (06 Marks)
2(a) Describe the various extraneous variables which if not controlled in an experiment may contaminate the effect of the independent variable. (04 marks)
(b) What is meant by the external validity of an experimental design? Explain. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain the importance of ‘inter-disciplinary type’ of research. (04 Marks)
(d) Examine critically the different experimental methods of data collection. (06 Marks)
3(a) How does questionnaire differ from a schedule? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a questionnaire? (06 Marks)
(b) What are the different methods used in the collection of primary statistical data? Explain them fully. (06 Marks)
(c)  Define secondary data. State their chief sources and point out the perils involved in their use and the precautions necessary while using them. (08 Marks)
4(a) State some advantages and limitations of attitude measurement scales. (06 Marks)
(b) What is the major limitation of using an ordeal measurement? (05 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly probability methods of sampling and non-probability methods of sampling. (06 Marks)
(d) In a population under study, there are 2000 women and 8000 men. If we are to select a sample of 250 individuals from this population, how many should be women to make our sample considered strictly representative? (03 Marks)
5(a) Processing of data implies editing, coding, classification and tabulation. Describe these 4 operations pointing out the significance of each in context of research study. (08 Marks)
(b) Explain Lagrange’s method and parabolic curve method of interpolation.(08 Marks)
(c) In a factory a machine takes 15 days to fabricate a machine, the second machine takes 18 days, the third machine takes 30 days and the fourth machine takes 90 days. Find the average number of days taken by the workers to fabricate the machine. (04 Marks)
6(a) What are the different type of statistical averages? Explain any two in detail. (08 Marks)
(b) Write a short note on McNemar test. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain standard error. (04 Marks)
(d) A fertilizer manufacturing company applies its own fertilizer to 5 plots which give the average yield of 100 kgs. On applying its competitor’s product to another set of 9 plots, the average yield comes to 125 kgs. Combined standard deviation for the 2 sets of 14 plots is 5.7. Is there any evidence of difference between the yields in the 2 samples? Use 5% level of significance. (04 marks)
7(a) Write a short note on Kruskal-Wallis test. (04 Marks)
(b) Write notes on profitability ratios and leverage ratios. (06 Marks)
(c)In a group of 15 identical twin pairs, one member of each pair is given special training, the other member of the pair acting as a control. In a final test, 10 of the trained twins were found superior to their twin controls, 4 were found inferior and in one pair the scores were found to be the same. Were the trained twins superior to the untrained? Apply the sign test. (04 Marks)
(d) The theory predicts that the proportion of beans in the four groups A, B, C and D should be 9:3:3:1. In an experiment among 1600 beans, the numbers in the four groups were 882, 313, 287 and 118. Does the experimental result support the theory? Apply χ2 test at 5% level of significance. (06 Marks)
8(a) Write a note on preparation of oral presentation. (05 Marks)
(b) Explain the importance of a research report and state the various steps to be taken in writing such a report. (06 Marks)
(c) Write a note on plagiarism. (5 Marks)
(d) Write a note on usefulness of bibliography in a research report. (04 Marks)

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Engineering Hydrology- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Civil engineering

1(a) Describe the hydrologic cycle. Explain briefly the man’s interference in various parts of this cycle. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the different methods of determining the average rainfall over a catchment due to a storm. Discuss the relative merits and demerits of the various methods. (06 Marks)
(c) What is meant by Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over a basin? Explain how PMP is estimated? (04 Marks)
(d) Analysis of data on maximum one day rainfall depth at Chennai indicated that a depth of 280 mm had a return period of 50 years. Determine the probability of a one day rainfall depth equal to or greater than 280 mm at Chennai occurring (a) once in 20 successive years, (b) two times in 15 successive years, and (c) at least once in 20 successive years. (04 Marks)
2(a) Explain a procedure for fitting Horton’s infiltration equation for experimental data from a given plot. (06 Marks)
(b) List the various data needed to use Penman’s equation for estimating the potential evapotranspiration from a given area. (04 Marks)
(c) Discuss the importance of evaporation control of reservoirs and possible methods of achieving the same. (06 Marks)
(d) In a 140-min storm, the following rates of rainfall were observed in successive 20-min intervals: 6.0, 6.0, 18.0, 13.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 12.0 mm/h. Assuming the φ-index value as 3.0 mm/h and an initial loss of 0.8 mm, determine the total rainfall, net runoff and W-index for the storm. (04 Marks)
3(a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following relative to the flow measurement by using current meters:
(i) Electromagnetic method        (ii) Ultrasound method. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the procedure for obtaining the stage-discharge relationship of a stream by using the stage-discharge data from a site with permanent control. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the moving boat method of stream flow measurement. (04 Marks)
(d) It is proposed to adopt the dilution method of stream gauging for a river whose hydraulic properties at average flow are as follows:
Width = 45 m, Depth = 2 m, Discharge = 85 m3/s, Chezy coefficient = 20 to 30. Determine the safe mixing length that has to be adopted for this stream. (04 Marks)
4(a) What is a hydrological drought? What are its components and their possible effects? (06 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between yield and surface water resources potential of a basin having substantial water resources development for meeting irrigation, domestic and industrial needs within the basin. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the SCS-CN method of estimation yield of a catchment through use of daily rainfall record. (04 Marks)
(d) A reservoir is located in a region where the normal annual precipitation is 160 cm and the normal annual US class A pan evaporation is 200 cm. The average area of reservoir water surface is 75 km2. If under conditions of 35% of the rainfall on the land occupied by the reservoir runoff into the stream, estimate the net annual increase or decrease in the stream flow as result of the reservoir. Assume evaporation pan coefficient = 0.70. (04 Marks)
5(a) Why is base flow separated from the flood hydrograph in the process of developing a unit hydrograph? (04 Marks)
(b) Describe the S-curve method of developing a 6-h UH by using 12-h UH of the catchment. (04 Marks)
(c) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a catchment is triangular in shape with a base width of 64 hours and a peak ordinate of 30 m3/s. Calculate the equilibrium discharge of the S6 – curve of the basin. (06 Marks)
(d) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a basin is triangular in shape with a peak of 100 m3/s occurring at 24-h from the start. The base is 72-h.
(i) What is the area of the catchment represented by this unit hydrograph?
(ii) Calculate the flood hydrograph due to a storm of rainfall excess of 2.0 cm during the first 6 hours and 4.0 cm during the second 6 hours interval. The base flow can be assumed to be 25 m3/s constant throughout. (06 Marks)
6(a) Annual flood series having N consecutive entries are available for a catchment. Describe a procedure to verify whether the data follow Gumbel’s distribution. (06 Marks)
(b) Describe a numerical method of hydrologic reservoir routing. (04 Marks)
(c) Describe the Muskingum method of flood routing an inflow hydrograph through a channel reach. Assume the values of coefficients K and x for the reach are known. (06 Marks)
(d) A rectangular parking lot is 150m wide and 300m long. The time of overland flow across the pavement to the longitudinal gutter along the center is 20 minutes and the estimated total tome of concentration to the downstream end of the gutter is 25 minutes. The coefficient of runoff is 0.92. If a rainfall of intensity 6 cm/h falls on the lot for 10 minutes and stops abruptly, determine the peak rate flow. (04 Marks)
7(a) Explain the behaviour of water level in wells in confined aquifers due to changes in the atmospheric pressure. (04 Marks)
(b) Describe a procedure by using Jacob’s method to calculate the aquifer parameters of a confine aquifer by using the well pumping test data. (06 Marks)
(c) What are Dupit’s assumptions? (04 Marks)
(d) A 30-cm well completely penetrates an artesian aquifer. The length of the strainer is 25m. Determine the discharge from the well when the drawdown at the pumping well is 4.0m. The coefficient of permeability of the aquifer is 345 m/day. Assume the radius of the well as 350m. (06 Marks)
8(a) What is meant by Trap Efficiency of a reservoir? What factors influence its value? (04 Marks)
(b) Explain the area-increment method of determining the sedimental distribution in a reservoir. (06 Marks)
(c) Distinguish between USLE and MUSLE? (06 Marks)
(d) A reservoir sediment is estimated through use of Koezler equation to have average unit weight of 1100 kg/m3 at the end of 35 years and 1120 kg/m3 at the end of 50 years. Estimate the average unit weight at the end of first year of deposit and at the end of 100 years. (04 Marks)