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Tuesday, 16 October 2012

Hydrology and water resources engineering-For B.E/B.Tech

1(a) What is ‘water stress index’? Explain its importance. (6 Marks)
(b) Discuss briefly the various uses of water supplies in a civilized society. (4 Marks)
(c) Write a note on ‘hydrologic cycle’. (6 Marks)
(d) Wheat requires 7.5 cms of water every 28 days. The base period for wheat is 140 days. Determine the value of delta for wheat. (4 Marks)
2(a) What are the limitations of radars in weather probes? (4 marks)
(b) Mention the basic forms of clouds and their subdivisions. (4 Marks)
(c) What is cyclonic precipitation? Differentiate between cold front and warm front. (6 Marks)
(d) The values of annual precipitations at a rain gauge station expressed in cm per year in chronological sequence from 1967 to 1976 are indicated below:
70.2     31.7     68.8     50.9     60.3     58.7     43.9     50.3     48.7     67.5
Estimate the value of precipitation which has a recurrence interval of 5 year. (6 Marks)
3(a) Write a note on ground water depletion curve. (4 Marks)
(b) Explain the terms ‘residual rain’, ‘infiltration capacity’ and ‘rainfall interception’. (6 Marks)
(c) Describe any one practical method for the determination of evaporation. (5 Marks)
(d) Assuming the initial infiltration rate of 10 mm/h, final infiltration rate of 5 mm/h and the constant value describing the rate of decay of the difference between the initial and final infiltration rates as 0.95 h-1, calculate the total infiltration depth for a storm lasting 6 h. (5 Marks)
4(a) Enumerate and briefly discuss the various factors which affect the runoff from a catchment. (6 Marks)
(b) Write notes on ‘ instantaneous unit hydrograph’ and ‘design flood’. (6 Marks)
(c) Sketch a typical rating curve and explain its use. (4 Marks)
(d) What return period you would adopt in the design of a culvert on a drain if you are allowed to accept only 5% risk of flooding in the 25 years of expected life of the culvert? (4 Marks)
5(a) Explain the construction, design and maintenance of dikes. (6 Marks)
(b) Explain the terms ‘emergency evacuation’, ‘flood losses’ and ‘flood-plain zoning’. (6 Marks)
(c) Write a note on flood-forecasting. (4 Marks)
(d) Define and explain the term ‘Antecedent precipitation index’. (4 Marks)
6(a) What is a ‘flood control reservoir’? Mention different types. (6 Marks)
(b)Discuss with a neat sketch, the various storage zones of the dam reservoir. (6 Marks)
(c) Write a note on reservoir sedimentation and its control. (4 Marks)
(d) The design annual rainfall for the catchment of a proposed reservoir has been computed to be 99 cm. The catchment area has been estimated to have the mean annual temperature of 200C. The catchment area contributing to the proposed reservoir is 1000 Calculate the annual design catchment yield for the reservoir using Khosla’s formula. (4 Marks)
7(a) Explain artificial recharge of ground water. (4 Marks)
(b) Differentiate between shallow dug wells and deep dug wells. (4 Marks)
(c) River valley projects are generally made multipurpose. Why? (4 Marks)
(d) A circular island 600m radius has an effective rainfall infiltration of 4 mm/day. A central well is pumped to deliver a constant discharge of 25 m3/h from an aquifer of hydraulic conductivity of 20 m/day. Diameter of the well is 0.6 m. The head around the island is 10 m. What is the drawdown at the well and at the water divide? (8 Marks)
8 (a) Enlist the various steps involved in engineering economy studies. (6 Marks)
(b) Discuss the hydraulic data that you would collect for proper calibration of a hydrologic model. (4 Marks)
(c) Write a note on flood-forecasting digital computer models. (4 Marks)
(d) An equipment used in construction activity costs INR 40000 at first purchase. The average annual expenditure thereon for OMR is estimated to be INR 9000 for the next three years for which funds to be procured at the beginning of each year. At the end of the third year, it can be scrapped at a then value of INR 10000. If the acceptable rate of return is 15% per annum, what should be the annual income by this machine as reckoned at the end of each year? (6 Marks)

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