1(a) Mention some advantages of
Computational fluid dynamics. (5 Marks)

(b) Explain the use of
Computational fluid dynamics in automotive engineering. (5 Marks)

(c) What details can
Computational fluid dynamics capture in the simulation of hydro-cyclones, a
process commonly used in the minerals industry? (6 Marks)

(d) What competitive edge can
Computational fluid dynamics give to a cycling team? (4 Marks)

2 (a) How are commercial codes
allowing Computational fluid dynamics analyses to be carried out with ease for
the novice user? (5 Marks)

(b) What are the advantages of
using X-Y plots? Give examples of what Computational fluid dynamics results X-Y
plots can capture. (6 Marks)

(c) What type of boundary can be
used for a computational boundary that represents an open physical boundary? (4
Marks)

(d) What is the meaning of a
streamline? What advantages do they have over other plot types? (5 Marks)

3 (a) Obtain the general
analytical solution for Laplace’s equation for
a one-dimensional case. (8 Marks)

(b) The Reynolds number is a
ratio of two fluid properties. What are they? (4 Marks)

(c) The use of direct numerical
simulation-DNS remains a problem for engineering applications. Why? (4 Marks)

(d) What is the significance of
the Prandtl number equaling to one in terms of entry lengths. (4 Marks)

4 (a) What is the Gaussian
elimination method based on? Can this method be used to solve a system of
nonlinear algebraic equations? (6 Marks)

(b) Where are the flow-field
variables located in collocated grids? How is this different from the locations
in a staggered grid? (6 Marks)

(c) What is the significance of
integration of the governing equations over a control volume during the
finite-volume discretization? (4 Marks)

(d) Why are higher order upwind
schemes more favorable than the first order upwind scheme? (4 Marks)

5(a) What is the stability
criteria produced by the Von Neumann analysis? (4 Marks)

(b) Discuss briefly how multigrid
methods are employed to increase the computational efficiency in solving
Computational fluid dynamics problems. (5 Marks)

(c) How is the concept of
residual applied to describe the discretized equation of the system of
transport equations? (5 Marks)

(d) What are discretization
errors? What is the difference between a global error and a local error? (6
Marks)

6(a) What are the some of the
difficulties that arise regarding programming of Computational fluid dynamics
problems for an unstructured mesh? (6 Marks)

(b) What is the skewness of a
mesh element? Why is it best to avoid highly skewed elements? (6 Marks)

(c) Without experimental data for turbulent inlet
profiles, what is the recommended method to consider turbulence effects? (4
Marks)

(d) Why do engineers prefer the
Reynolds-averaged-based turbulence models such as the k-ε model over the
complex LES model? (4 Marks)

7(a) What is the Eulerian
description of a fluid motion? How dioes it differ from the Lagrangian
description? (6 Marks)

(b) Explain how Computational
fluid dynamics deal with heat transfer coupled with fluid flow. (8 Marks)

(c) Computational fluid dynamics is well suited to
analyze a wide range of shape options. Explain. (6 Marks)

8(a) What advanced techniques
would be required to simulate airflow through the respiratory system into the
lungs? What about pulsating blood flow through veins and arteries? (6 Marks)

(b) What is the immerse boundary
method and how is this different from using a boundary fitted grid? (6 Marks)

(c) What is the difference in
one-way coupling and two-way coupling in multiphase flows? (4 Marks)

(d) What difficulties arise from
modeling a transient supersonic flow around an airfoil? (4 Marks)

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