1(a) Write Newton's equation of viscosity. What do you understand by the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids? (4 Marks)

(b) Explain the working of a single-tube manometer. What is the advantage of a single-tube manometer over an ordinary manometer. (6 Marks)

(c) What are the different modes of failure of a gravity dam? How would you compute the hydrostatic pressure when the upstream face is (a) vertical, (b) inclined and (c) curved? (5 Marks)

(d) A dock gate is to be reinforced with the three equal horizontal beams. If the water acts on one side only to a depth of 6m, find the positions of the beams, measured below the water, so that each will carry an equal load and give the load on each per meter run. (5 Marks)

2(a) Define the terms centre of buoyancy and metacentric height. (4 Marks)

(b) A cylindrical tank partly filled with a liquid is rotated at a constant angular velocity ω about its vertical axis. What form will the free surface assume? How will the pressure intensity vary along the bottom of the tank? (6 Marks)

(c) What is continuity equation? Derive the equation for one-dimensional incompressible flow. (6 Marks)

(d) At a sudden enlargement of a water line from 240 mm to 480 mm diameter pipe, the hydraulic gradient line rises by 10 mm. Estimate the rate of flow. (4 Marks)

3(a)What is the difference between a small and large orifice? (4 Marks)

(b) What is the difference between a sharp-crested weir and a broad-crested weir? (4 Marks)

(c) What is the difference between pipe flow and open channel flow? Derive Darcy-Weisbach equation for the loss of head due to friction in a pipe. (8 Marks)

(d) Find the discharge of water flowing through a pipe of 30 cm diameter placed in an inclined position where a venturimeter is inserted having a throat diameter of 15 cm. The difference of pressure between the main and the throat measured by the liquid of specific gravity 0.60 in an inverted U-tube which gives a reading of 30 cm. The loss of head between the main and the thtroat is 0.2 times the kinetic head of the pipe. (4 Marks)

4(a) Define the terms Celerity and Mach number. (4 Marks)

(b) State Buckingham's π-theorem. What is the advantage of Buckingham's π-theorem over Rayleigh's method of dimensional analysis. (6 Marks)

(c) Explain the difficulties in obtaining complete similitude in a ship model. How these difficulties are overcome? (6 Marks)

(d) The irrigation channel of trapezoidal section has the slide slopes 1 horizontal to 1 vertical. It has to carry 10 cumecs at a bed slope of 1 in 5000. Find the most economical section. Take Manning's N = 0.012. (4 Marks)

5(a) Find the kinematic viscosity in stokes of water whose specific gravity is 0.95 and viscosity 0.011 poise. (4 Marks)

(b) Show that the smooth pipe and rough pipe formulae for the coefficient of friction can be combined in one formula, and hence obtain the common formula. (8 Marks)

(c) What do you understand by separation of boundary layer? How it affects the flow pattern? Describe the methods to control separation. (4 Marks)

(d) An airfoil of 20 m span and 2 m chord has the lift and drag coefficients of 0.60 and 0.05 respectively for a certain angle of attack. Calculate the power required to drive the airfoil in horizontal flight at 360 km/hour. Also calculate the lift force. Take air density = 1.20 kg/cubic meter. (4 Marks)

6(a) What is the necessity of transitions in open channels? Describe various types of transitions used in practice. (6 Marks)

(b) A jet of water 2.5 cm in diameter strikes a symmetrical vane at the centre and gets deflected by 150 degrees. calculate the thrust on the vane if the velocity of the jet is 20 m/sec. (4 Marks)

(c) What is a draft tube? Derive an expression for the efficiency of a draft tube. (6 Marks)

(d) A wide rectangular channel carries a discharge of 3 cumecs per meter width on a slope of 1 in 1000. A weir is constructed across the channel which increases the depth to 2 m. Calculate the distance from the weir to a point where the depth is 1.75 m. Use Bresse's method. C=45, N=0.025. (4 Marks)

7(a) Derive an expression for the specific speed in terms of power P, head H and revolutions per minute N. (8 Marks)

(b) Explain the reason for fitting large air vessels on the suction and delivery pipes of a reciprocating pump close to the cylinder. (4 Marks)

(c) Two geometrically similar pumps are run at the same speed of 1000 r.p.m. One pump has an impeller diameter of 0.3 m and lifts water at the rate of 20 lit/sec against a head of 15 m. Determine the head and impeller diameter of the other pump to deliver half the discharge. (4 Marks)

(d) Explain briefly the uses of the hydraulic accumulator. (4 Marks)

8(a) What is sediment? What are the tree types of sediments? Explain. (6 Marks)

(b) Obtain an expression for the stream function for a combined flow consisting of a uniform flow of 20 m/s parallel to the positive direction of the x-axis and a uniform flow of 10 m/s parallel to the positive direction of the y-axis. (6 Marks)

(c) What is a forebay? What are its uses? (4 Marks)

(d) For a hydropower plant, the design capacity is 1.23 × 10

^{5}kW. If the generated power is 10 × 10^{4}kW, determine the efficiency of the plant. If the peak discharge is 1.60 times the normal discharge, determine the plant capacity. (4 Marks)
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